Experiences of an Adapted Physical Activity Intervention Program in Saudi Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers’ Self-Efficacy Towards Inclusion

Majed M. Alhumaid1, *, Selina Khoo2, Tânia Bastos3
1 Department of Physical Education, College of Education, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia
2 Centre for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
3 Centre of Research, Education, Innovation, and Intervention in Sport, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Porto 4200-450, Portugal

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© 2022 Alhumaid et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at Department of Physical Education, College of Education, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia; E-mail:



Adapted physical activity programs are considered to be one of the most effective and timely ways of increasing levels of self-efficacy among pre-service physical education teachers toward inclusive practices. However, the literature lacks adequate qualitative studies to measure the effectiveness of such programs. To address this paucity, the present study aims to explore pre-service physical education teachers’ experiences after completing a 6-week adapted physical activity intervention program designed to improve the inclusion of students with physical disabilities in general physical education settings.


Six pre-service physical education teachers who completed a 6-week adapted physical activity intervention program participated in individual semi-structured interviews. Deductive and inductive techniques were used in the data analysis.


All the participants reported that the intervention program was relatively effective at enhancing their self-efficacy and preparation towards including students with physical disabilities in physical education classes.


Regular exposure to practicum involving teaching students with disabilities is key to encouraging strong self-efficacy among pre-service PE teachers. Some suggestions for future intervention programs are provided.

Keywords: Inclusive physical education, Students with disabilities, Physical disability, Physical education, Teacher education, Inclusive education, Saudi arabia.