Theoretical Basis of Technical-tactical Behavior and its Application in Ultimate Full Contact Training

Fernando C. Loio Pinto1, 3, Henrique P. Neiva1, 2, Ricardo Ferraz1, 2, *
1 Department of Sport Sciences, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal
2 Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences and Human Development, CIDESD, Covilhã, Portugal
3 WUFC World Ultimate Full Contact – Association, Viseu, Portugal

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© 2021 Pinto et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Sports Sciences, University of Beira Interior (Covilhã), Portugal, Convento de Santo António, 6201-001 (Covilhã) Portugal; Tel: +351275329153; Fax: 00351275329183; E-mail:



Technical-tactical training has been shown to be relevant to performance in a competition. In this regard, several studies have analysed the efficiency of technical-tactical dynamics in combat sports. However, these researchers have mainly focused on technical efficiency, and therefore more research is needed regarding tactical efficiency. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, there are no published experiential studies on Ultimate Full Contact.


This brief review will analyse the theoretical basis of technical-tactical behaviour for training application in Ultimate Full Contact, characterising the modality under cognitive and dynamic-ecological approaches. This knowledge can be transferred and applied to similar modalities, such as Pankration, Free Fight, Shooto, and Mixed Martial Arts (MMA).


The theoretical technical-tactical knowledge created through competition is essential because it is the only way that improvement in the training process can occur. Ultimate Full Contact is characterised as a combat sport of special complexity and intermitent intensity, where the technical-tactical factors are decisive for the performance while the physical component can be a conditioning factor. A careful regulation between technical-tactical training load and physiological load is essential to obtain adjustable adaptations. Both cognitive and dynamic-ecological approaches should be considered based on the respective training models.

Keywords: Combat sports, Ultimate full contact, Pankration, mma mixed martial arts, Free-fight, Technical-tactical, Cognitive and dynamic-ecological approaches, Training methods, Styles, Combat distances.