The Effect of Simulation-based Training on Athletic Performances among Female Basketball Players

Zahra Javanmardi1, Maryam K. Jahromi1, Mohammad Hemmatinafar1, Beat Knechtle2, Pantelis T. Nikolaidis3, *
1 Department of Sport Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
2 Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
3 School of Health and Caring Sciences, University of West Attica, Athens, Greece

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Creative Commons License
© 2021 Javanmardi et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the School of Health and Caring Sciences, University of West Attica, Athens, Greece; E-mail:



The effectiveness of simulation-based training has been examined in various sports. However, considering the effect of gender and sport on training, it would be interesting to evaluate simulation-based training in female basketball.


The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of simulation-based training on physical fitness and performance indices in female basketball players.


Sixteen female semi-professional basketball players were randomly assigned to experimental (n=8; age, 25±2 years; weight, 62±9 kg; height, 167±8 cm) or control (n=8; age, 24±1 years; weight, 57±9 kg; height, 170±8 cm) groups. The experimental group participated in a six week basketball simulation training program including running with different speeds (jogging to sprinting), agility, jumping, and shuffling. Both groups performed the Cooper 12 min run, line drill, an adjusted T-test, 20 ms print, the Sargent vertical jump and basketball exercise simulation test before and after six weeks of the study period. Control and experimental groups performed typical basketball training, three times weekly. The overall training volume was similar for both groups.


The perceived exertion was higher in the simulation-based training than control (p<0.05) group. The findings of this study indicated a significant increase in VO2 max (p=0.001), anaerobic power (p=0.009), explosive leg strength (p=0.036), and total distance covered in basketball exercise simulation test (p=0.001) and decrease of the meantime of one round of basketball exercise simulation test (p=0.001) in the simulation training compared to the control group.


Generally incorporation of the simulation-based training in conditioning programs is recommended for improving aerobic, anaerobic and leg explosive strength of basketball players.

Keywords: Basketball, Female athletes, Simulation training, Physical fitness, Performance, Players.