RESEARCH ARTICLE


Initial Validation of a 33-Item Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Italian Athletes



Selenia di Fronso1, *, Claudio Robazza1, Cristina Montesano2, Maurizio Bertollo1
1 Behavioral Imaging and Neural Dynamics (BIND) Center, Department of Medicine and Aging Sciences, University “G. d’Annunzio” of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy
2 Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, University “G. d’Annunzio” of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy


© 2021 di Fronso et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at Behavioral Imaging and Neural Dynamics (BIND) Center, Department of Medicine and Aging Sciences, University “G. d’Annunzio” of Chieti-Pescara, Via Luigi Polacchi, 11-15, 66100, Chieti, Italy; E-mail:s.difronso@gmail.com


Abstract

Background:

The Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (RESTQ-Sport-36) is a self-report measure intended to monitor the recovery-stress balance in athletes. A validated Italian version of this instrument was not available so far.

Objective:

The aim of this study was to provide an initial validation in Italian language of the RESTQ-Sport-36.

Methods:

A sample of Italian athletes (N = 339; women = 148; men = 191) from various sports completed the RESTQ-Sport-36 and the Italian Mood Scale (ITAMS). We examined the factorial validity and the internal consistency of the RESTQ-Sport-36 and its concurrent validity with the ITAMS.

Results:

A confirmatory factor analysis supported a 12-factor structure after the removal of 3 items. Reliability analysis showed a satisfactory internal consistency of the 33-item Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (RESTQ-Sport-33). Pearson correlation coefficients revealed that the RESTQ-Sport-33 and ITAMS share some common variance but measure different constructs.

Conclusion:

Our results provided support to the factorial validity and reliability of the RESTQ-Sport-33. This instrument can be used to reliably monitor recovery-stress balance of Italian athletes throughout the season.

Keywords: CFA, Internal consistency, Monitoring, Recovery demands, Stressor, ITAMS.