Balance Control and Muscles Activity of An Elderly Retired Man During Different Focus of Attention Instructions

Amin Amini1, *, Hossein Shirvani2, Behzad Bazgir2
1 Cognitive Science and Technology Center, Institute of Knowledge and Cognitive Intelligence, Imam Hossein University, Tehran, Iran
2 Exercise Physiology Research Center, Life Style Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

© 2020 Amini et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Cognitive Science and Technology Center, Institute of Knowledge and Cognitive Intelligence, Imam Hossein University, Tehran, Iran; Tel: +98 9120227149; E-mail:



Good balance and muscle activity are essential to do daily activities. Recent studies have focused on the relations between balance and attention patterns. The study of the balance and muscle activity of people in different patterns of attention can clarify the nature of the effect of attention instructions.


The present study aims to evaluate the changes in different focus of attention instructions and quality of balance control and muscle activity in the elderly retired.


Thirty elderly retired men [mean age: 51.6 ± 6.4 years] were recruited for this study. Subjects were selected through the berg balance test. Balance control ability [Biodex Balance System] and muscle activity [electromyography system] were assessed in two conditions, internal attention and external attention task. The data obtained were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA at a significant level of P<0.05.


Body sway and muscle activity parameters were correlated with different patterns of attention. During external focus condition, [1] Center of Pressure [CoP] total two-leg balance, CoP medio-lateral and CoP anterior-posterior for external-focus were lowered [P<0.05] and [2] Tibialis anterior and soleus for the leg, biceps brachii and triceps brachii for the arm, sternocleidomastoid and semispinalis capitis for external-focus were lowered [P<0.05].


Improved static balance responses and alterations in postural control were observed under external focus conditions. An external focus of attention may be the preferred method for facilitating balance control and muscle activation in an elderly retired man.

Keywords: Elderly retired, Attention instructions, Balance control, Muscle activity, CoP total Two-leg balance, CoP Medio-lateral.