Determinative Factors in The Injury Incidence on Runners: Synthesis of Evidence “Injuries on Runners”

Andrigo Zaar1, 2, *, Eduardo Borba Neves3, Abel Ilah Rouboa4, 5, 6, Victor Machado Reis7
1 Department of Physical Education of João Pessoa University Center (UNIPÊ) João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil
2 Kinanthropometry and Human Development Laboratory (UFPB), João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil
3 Brazilian Army Research Institute of Physical Fitness, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
4 Engineering Department of University of Trás-os-Montes e ALto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal
5 CIENER-INEGI, Faculty of Engineering of University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
6 MEAM Department, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
7 Department of Sport Science, Exercise and Health. University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro. Vila Real. Portugal

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Creative Commons License
© 2017 Zaar et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this authors at the Department of Physical Education of João Pessoa University Center (UNIPÊ). Kinanthropometry and Human Development Laboratory (UFPB), João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, Tel: +351 54 9169 8481; E-mail:



Long-distance running is a popular recreational exercise. It is a beneficial activity for health and wellness. However, the running can also cause injury, particularly in the lower extremities. There is no consensus in the literature on the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that cause these musculoskeletal injuries. In theory, most injuries are caused by methodological errors, the type of footwear and terrain.


To identify the factors associated with injuries in recreational runners based on evidence.


The data sources used were: PubMed, Science Direct and Web of Science. Compiled the English-language articles identified by keywords, titles of medical affairs and research of electronic databases above. With this research from the review process, controlled trials were grouped in a study population consisted of recreational runners.


Evidences suggest that injuries are common for runners. Many variables can contribute to the injury process, among them extrinsic factors such as training methodology, running shoes and surface.


To modify one or more of these factors may help prevent injury, so coaches and runners should consider it, and prevention efforts need to be tailored to this group to reduce the risk of specific injuries.

Keywords: Injury, Runners, Prevention, Extrinsic factors, Divulgation, Society.