Analysis of the Technical Content of Elite Rhythmic Gymnastics Group Routines

Lurdes Avila-Carvalho*, Maria da Luz Palomero, Panaginota Klentrou, Eunice Lebre
Department of Gymnastics, Faculty of Sports, Porto University, Porto, Portugal

© 2012 Avila-Carvalho et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Gymnastics, Faculty of Sports, Porto University, Porto, Portugal; Tel: 962483462-915919013; Fax: +351225500689; E-mails:,


The purpose of this study was to analyse all technical elements used in elite Rhythmic Gymnastics group routines. All technical difficulties reported in the forms submitted during the 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010 Portimao World Cup competitions were analysed. These included a total of 126 different Group routines from 28 countries. The Groups were clustered for the analysis into two subgroups according to their ranking at the 2010 World Championship. The body difficulties were organized according to the new technical framework into four technical element categories including balances, jumps, rotations and exchange difficulties. Body difficulties in Rhythmic Gymnastics group routines followed a pattern consistent with their ranking. The main characteristic of the routine composition was the focus on exchanges, balances and jumps and the lesser use of rotations. Amongst all body difficulties, the jumps was the technical category with the most limited variety while rotations although less used had more variety. The limited variety in the choice of body difficulties in the composition of Rhythmic Gymnastics group routines makes them monotonous and compromises their artistic value. This study provides updated information regarding the mainstream strategies in the Rhythmic Gymnastics routine composition.

Keywords: Body difficulty, elite rhythmic gymnastics, group routines, evaluation.