Sprint Performance Determinants in High Level Young Swimmers

Carolina L. Matos1, Ana T. Conceição1, 2, 3, *, Hugo G. Louro1, 2, Henrique P. Neiva2, 4, Pedro N. Sobreiro1, 3, Bárbara L. Viana4, Daniel A. Marinho2, 4
1 Sport Sciences School of Rio Maior, Rio Maior, Portugal
2 Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health and Human Development, CIDESD, Portugal
3 CIEQV: The Life Quality Research Centre, Santarém, Portugal
4 Department of Sports Sciences, University of Beira Interior, Portugal



The identification and evaluation of the variables that influence performance have been essential to obtain excellence in sport.


The aim of this study was to identify which parameters have the most influence on the 50 meters freestyle time, in young competitive swimmers.


One hundred and eighty-four high-level swimmers (males, n=92: 14.60±0.56 years; females, n=92: 13.53 ± 0.54 years) with 468±66 FINA points in the 50 meters freestyle in short course participated in this study. Age, height, body mass, wingspan, stroke rate, stroke length, stroke index, turning time (5 m + 10 m), horizontal jumping, and medicine ball throwing were assessed. The swimming performance was assessed in a 50 meters freestyle time-trial at maximum speed in a 25 meters swimming pool. A multiple regression was performed to assess the relationship between one dependent variable (50 meters freestyle time) and independent variables.


The results showed differences between both genders. In male swimmers, only the turning time and the horizontal jump were significant (r2=0.8819; p<0.001), whilst the females, besides the same variables, presented the height, body mass, stroke length and stroke index (r2=0.9013; p<0.01).


In conclusion, in young male swimmers, the turning time and the horizontal jump contributed significantly to the 50 meters freestyle swimming performance, and in young female swimmers, the main contributors were the turning time, horizontal jump, height, body mass, stroke length and stroke index.

keywords: Swimming, Young swimmers, Performance factors, Freestyle, Stroke, Turning.

Abstract Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2022
Volume: 15
Publisher Item Identifier: EA-TOSSJ-2021-30

Article History:

Electronic publication date: 25/3/2022
Collection year: 2022

© 2022 Matos et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the, Sports Sciences School of Rio Maior, Polytechnic Institute of Santarém, Av. Dr. Mário Soares, 2040-413 Rio Maior, Portugal; anaconceicao@esdrm.ipsantarem.pt